AIDS drug could see mandatory licensing By Shan Juan (China Daily) Updated: 2011-06-25 07:20

June 25, 2011 at 12:40 pm | Posted in china, drug, hiv | Leave a comment

Governmenthopestokeepcostslowforexpansionofpreventiveprogram

BEIJING-ChinaisconsideringmandatorylicensingtosecurecheaperdrugsforHIV/AIDSpatients,particularlyasthenation’shealthauthorityispreparingtoexpandcoverageforthepreventiveantiretroviraltherapy(ART).

Verysoon,coupleswithonepartnerhavingHIV/AIDSandtheotherbeingnegative-estimatedat30,000onthemainland-willbeofferedfreeART,HaoYang,deputydirectorofthediseasepreventionandcontrolbureauattheMinistryofHealth,toldChinaDailyinanexclusiveinterview.

Currentlyonlyfull-blownAIDSpatientsaregiventhat.

StudieshavefoundthatifanHIV-infectedpersonwhohasnotdevelopedfull-blownAIDSadherestoaneffectiveARTregimen,theriskoftransmittingthevirustotheiruninfectedsexualpartnercanbereducedby96percent.

ThenotionofearlytreatmentforpreventionishighlyrecommendedbytheWorldHealthOrganizationandUNAIDS.

ChineseexpertswiththeMinistryofHealtharenowbusydraftinganewprotocolandorganizingtrainingformedicalworkersandcommunity-basedorganizations,Haosaid.

“Onceinpractice,thedrugsupplyhastobetremendouslyincreasedandtosecureaffordableAIDSinterventionwedon’truleoutthepossibilityofissuingcompulsorylicensingforpatentedpharmaceuticalsneededforART,”hesaid.

LastJanuary,Chinaamendedapatentregulationtogiveacleardefinitionof”patentedpharmaceuticals”thataresubjecttocompulsorylicensing.

YinXintian,directorofthelegalaffairsdepartmentoftheStateIntellectualPropertyOffice,saidthemoveaimedtomakethecompulsorylicensingsystemcompatiblewiththeneedtocopewithpublichealthcrisesandbenefitthepeople.

Chinahasanestimated740,000peoplelivingwithHIV/AIDSonthemainlandand100,000full-blownAIDSpatientsareonARTtreatmentprovidedfreebythegovernment,officialstatisticsshow.

However,MarkStirling,countrycoordinatoroftheUNAIDSChinaOffice,saidthatasChina’sneedforthedrugincreasessubstantiallyduetoexpandedtreatmentforprevention,thegovernmentcouldbargainwithinternationalsuppliersforalowerprice.

“Stakeholdersincludingthegovernment,community-basedorganizationsanddomesticpharmaceuticalcompaniesshouldfirstbeorganizedtolookatthecostofcompulsorylicensing,”hesaid.

Besidescostconcerns,effortsneedtobemadeincommunitymobilizationandadapteddeliverysystemstoputthenewnotionintopracticeinChina,saidNicoleSeguy,HIVMedicalOfficeroftheWHOBeijingOffice.

WuZunyou,directoroftheNationalCenterforAIDSandSexuallyTransmittedDiseasesControlandPrevention,concededthatChinastillfaceschallengesincludingpatienteducationanddoctortraining.

“Medicalworkershavetobetrainedtopersuadesuffererswhohaveyetdevelopedanysymptomstotakethemedicines,whichtosomeextentbringcertainsideeffects,”hesaid.

Heurgedcivilsocietiesthathaveaspecialapproachtoreachthesuffererstoparticipateinthecampaign.

ThomasCai,whoheadsAIDSCareChina,aGuangzhou-basedNGOthatprovidessupporttopatientsandtheirfamilies,said: “Civilsocietieswouldhelpfacilitateamoresufferer-centeredapproachforthenewmove.”

ChinaDaily

(ChinaDaily06/25/2011 page1)

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UK HIV infection fell by 7.2% from 6,617 to 6,136 in 2010

March 24, 2011 at 7:55 am | Posted in hiv | Leave a comment

There has been a small increase in HIV infections in the North East, while infections nationally have fallen.

Provisional data from the Health Protection Agency (HPA) shows 140 new cases of HIV in the North East in 2010, a rise of 4.4% over the 2009 figure.

Over the same period, the UK figure fell by 7.2% from 6,617 to 6,136.

Staff at Middlesbrough-based HIV support charity Teesside Positive Action said the rise was disappointing and called for better education.

 

今天是“世界防治结核病日” 广东省传染性肺结核病患病率10年下降63%

March 24, 2011 at 6:41 am | Posted in health | Leave a comment
Tags:
广东省传染性肺结核病患病率10年下降63%
( 2011-03-24 09:35:01) 稿件来源:南方日报
今天是第16个“世界防治结核病日”,今年的宣传主题为“遏制结核,共享健康”。广东省卫生厅昨晚通报,从2001年到2010年,全省完成了第三个全省结核病防治10年规划,全面推行现代结核病控制策略,结核病防治工作取得了显著成效。 

患病率递降速度接近世界水平

据统计,10年来广东省肺结核患病率和传染性肺结核患病率分别以4%和10%的年递降速度下降。根据2010年我省结核病流行病学 抽样调查结果显示,我省肺结核患病率为230/10万,比2000年下降34.6%,传染性肺结核患病率为40/10万,比2000年下降62.8%。我 省结核病疫情得到有效遏制,传染性肺结核患病率的递降速度接近世界水平。

2001年—2010年,全省共发现登记管理肺结核病人554458例,其中新发传染性肺结核304426例,复治传染性肺结核 39070例;全省共免费治疗肺结核病人554458例,治愈肺结核病人528678例。初、复治传染性肺结核病人治愈率分别为93.3%和86.7%。

10年减少社会经济损失698亿

按照传染病流行模式估算,通过早发现、早报告、规范治疗结核病人,减少了传染源。10年来我省共减少了248600多例新发肺结核病人,减少了42000多例肺结核病人死亡,减少了病人直接医疗费用19.4亿元,减少了社会经济损失698亿元。

10年投入专项资金7.8亿

省卫生厅表示,结核病防治10年规划期间,全省各级财政共投入结核病防治专项资金7.8亿元。我省将进一步落实结核病防治策略,规 范病人管治,加强耐药结核病、流动人口结核病及结核菌/艾滋病病毒双重感染的控制工作,并将通过实施全球基金耐多药结核病控制项目,吸取国际先进技术和经 验,进一步提高结核病的防治水平。

省卫生厅介绍,凡广东省辖区内没有享受公费医疗、劳保医疗的居民,患活动性肺结核病时,可凭个人有效身份证明到辖区内的结核病防治机构诊疗,同时享有下列免费政策:

●免费检查 为所有到结核病防治专业机构就诊的肺结核病人和可疑症状者提供一次免费的胸部X线检查;免费享受初诊时、2月末、3月末、5月末、6月末和8月末(或治疗结束月末)的6次痰涂片检查。

●免费提供抗结核药品 对所有需要治疗的活动性肺结核病人,按照全国统一的治疗方案提供免费抗结核药物治疗。

●免费享受治疗期间全程管理和指导 在本辖区内住满3个月以上的外地居民可享受以上同等免费待遇。

●提供报病和病人治疗管理补助 为了鼓励报告和转诊肺结核可疑症状者、肺结核病人和疑似肺结核病人,对基层卫生工作人员提供报病补 助(中央转移支付10元/例),并对完成肺结核病人治疗管理的基层卫生工作人员提供治疗管理补助(初治涂阳100元/例,复治涂阳120元/例,涂阴病人 60元/例)。

另外,广州等部分市已将结核病辅助药品纳入门诊报销范围。(记者/陈枫 通讯员/粤卫信)

Side effect of Nimesulide

February 18, 2011 at 12:16 pm | Posted in drug, safety | Leave a comment
衛生署監察「尼美舒利」的使用
18.02.2011 19:08
內地傳媒報道,廣東過去個多月有一百三十三宗,兒童懷疑使用藥物「尼美舒利」後有不良反應,例如出現皮疹或腸胃不適。本港衛生署表示,尼美舒利可止痛,但並非退燒藥,要醫生處方;現時有十八種註冊藥品含尼美舒利。由於不當使用可對肝臟造成損傷,本港零七年起,要求產品代理商在含尼美舒利的藥品標纖或說明書上,列明對肝臟造成損害的風險, 及註明療程不應超過十五日。衛生署會繼續監察。 廣東省食品藥品監督管理局說,未發現兒童肝功能受損,但就呼籲家長小心讓子女服藥,不要與非類固醇類抗炎藥一同使用

內蒙研究指做不同運動有不同效果

February 6, 2011 at 2:13 pm | Posted in health | Leave a comment
Tags:
06.02.2011 11:23

內蒙古赤峰市體育科學研究所表示,不同運動有不同鍛鍊效果。若想減肥,就要做手腳並用的運動,例如游泳、滑雪、打拳或爬山;而做健美操或體操,就可鍛鍊平衡力及改善身體線條。運動亦可健腦,提高思維及想像力,以彈跳運動最有效;打乒乓球就可訓練眼睛不停轉動,可以防近視。 跑步亦可保持青春,促進體內的抗氧化酶,對抗衰老。而降低高血壓,就以散步、踏單車或游泳的效果最佳,因為肌肉會反覆收縮,加快血管收縮及擴張,降低血壓。

 

Information for consent in Ear Nose and Throat surgery

January 17, 2011 at 10:19 am | Posted in ent, nose, surgery, throat | Leave a comment

Information for consent in ear, nose and throat surgery prepared by HK College of Otorhinolaryngologist

DISCLAIMER
The material contained in these information sheets for ENT operations is
intended for physician reference and patient education. It is not intended for
third-party reimbursement or fiscal consideration. While every effort has been
made to ensure their accuracy, considering the possibility of unavoidable human
errors or progress in medical knowledge, the Hong Kong College of
Otorhinolaryngologists and the authors of the information sheets will not assume
any responsibility or liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property
arising out of or related to any use of or reliance on the material in whole or in
part contained in this publication, and all persons using or relying on such
materials must exercise their own discretion.
Information for Consent
Adenoidectomy 腺樣體切除
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Removal of adenoid (enlarged lymphoid tissue located at nasopharynx, the back of the nose)
切除腺樣體(位於鼻咽/鼻孔後, 肥大的淋巴組織)
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Nasal airway obstruction
鼻塞
􀂉 2. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) / Snoring
阻塞性睡眠窒息綜合症或鼻鼾症
􀂉 3. Otitis media with effusion
滲出性中耳炎
􀂉 4. Recurrent acute otitis media
復發性急性中耳炎
􀂉 5. Chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis
慢性或復發性鼻竇炎
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Reduce nasal airway obstruction
減輕鼻塞
􀂉 2. Reduce snoring and sleep apnea
減輕打鼻鼾及睡眠窒息
􀂉 3. Relieve otitis media with effusion
解除中耳積液
􀂉 4. Reduce recurrent acute otitis media
減少急性中耳炎復發
􀂉 5. Reduce chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis
減少慢性鼻竇炎復發
􀂉 6. There is chance of incomplete relief of symptoms and recurrence
有可能不會完全減輕症狀和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Nasal problems, snoring, sleep apnea and ear problems caused by obstruction other than adenoid
enlargement
並非因腺樣體肥大所引致的鼻腔、 打鼻鼾、 睡眠窒息和耳部問題
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Trauma to oral and nasal tissue
口鼻組織損傷
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Eustachian tube injury and stenosis causing otitis media with effusion, tinnitus and hearing loss
咽鼓管損傷,引致滲出性中耳炎、 耳鳴、 聽力下降
􀂉 2. Velopharyngeal incompetence causing voice change and fluid regurgitation on eating and drinking
腭咽閉合不良,引致發音改變、 進食和喝水時液體返嗆
􀂉 3. Nasopharyngeal stenosis causing obstruction of nasal breathing, snoring, sleep apnea, voice change
鼻咽狹窄,引致鼻塞、打鼻鼾、睡眠窒息、發音改變
􀂉 4. Voice change
聲音改變
􀂉 5. Temporomandibular joint injury causing pain, subluxation and trismus
顳頜關節損傷,引致疼痛、 半脫臼和 牙關緊閉
􀂉 6. Teeth injury causing fracture, loosening and pain
牙齒損傷,引致斷裂、 脫落和疼痛
􀂉 7. Cervical spine injury causing neck pain, decreased range of movement, sensory and motor nerve
deficit
頸椎損傷,引致頸痛、 活動減退、 感覺減低和運動神經損傷
􀂉 8. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Medical treatment
藥物治療
􀂉 2. Expectant treatment
觀察病情進展, 再作打算
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Persistent symptoms
症狀繼續存在
Information for Consent
Endoscopic Nasal and Sinus Surgery 鼻及鼻竇內窺鏡手術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Remove disease in the nose and sinuses to obtain drainage of paranasal sinuses by endoscopic
approach
通過內窺鏡,去除鼻及鼻竇疾病, 建立鼻竇引流
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Rhinosinusitis
鼻竇炎
􀂉 2. Nasal polyposis
鼻息肉
􀂉 3. Sinonasal tumors
鼻或鼻竇腫瘤
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Improve nasal symptoms such as obstruction, post-nasal dripping, facial pain, headache etc
改善鼻塞、 後鼻漏、 面部疼痛、 頭痛等問題
􀂉 2. Prevent complications of rhinosinusitis
預防併發症
􀂉 3. Remove tumor
摘除腫瘤
􀂉 4. There is chance of incomplete relief of symptoms and recurrence
可能不會完全減輕症狀和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Allergic symptoms such as itchiness, running nose, sneezing
其它過敏症狀:噴嚏、 鼻癢、 流鼻水
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Nasal bleeding
鼻膜出血
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Synechia
鼻腔粘連
􀂉 4. Recurrence of the disease
復發
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Severe bleeding due to injury of internal carotid artery, anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries,
sphenopalatine artery
損傷頸內動脈、籂前後動脈和蝶腭動脈,引致大出血
􀂉 2. Eye injury including bruising, emphysema, orbital haematoma / abscess, visual loss, diplopia
眼損傷,包括眶周淤血、 眼球血腫或 膿腫、 失明、 重影
􀂉 3. Nasolacrimal duct injury leading to epiphora
淚管損傷,引致流淚
􀂉 4. Intra-cranial injury including CSF leak, meningitis, brain abscess, pneumocephalocele
腦損傷,包括腦髓液鼻漏、 腦膜炎、 腦膿腫、 腦氣腫
􀂉 5. Mucocele
粘液囊腫
􀂉 6. Voice change
聲音改變
􀂉 7. Transient or permanent loss of smell sensation
暫時或永久失去嗅覺
􀂉 8. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Steroid
激素
􀂉 2. Antibiotic to treat infection
抗生素治療感染
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Persistence or progression of nasal symptoms
症狀持續或加重
􀂉 2. Complication of sinusitis
鼻竇炎併發症
Information for Consent
Mastoidectomy 乳突切除術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Removal of disease in middle ear structure and mastoid air cells
切除中耳及乳突氣房病灶
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Cholesteatoma
膽脂瘤
􀂉 2. Acute mastoiditis
急性乳突炎
􀂉 3. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and chronic mastoiditis
慢性化膿性中耳炎和乳突炎
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. To remove cholesteatoma
清除膽脂瘤
􀂉 2. To treat middle ear and mastoid infection
處理中耳和乳突感染
􀂉 3. There is chance of incomplete relief of symptoms and recurrence
有可能不會完全減輕症狀和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Tinnitus
耳鳴
􀂉 2. Dizziness
暈眩
􀂉 3. Hearing loss
弱聽
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Recurrence / residual disease
復發或 殘留
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 4. Worsening of conductive hearing loss
傳導性弱聽加重
􀂉 5. Taste loss or disturbances
味覺失去或紊亂
􀂉 6. Allergic reaction to ear packing
對耳道塡塞物過敏
􀂉 7. Vertigo
暈眩
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Facial nerve injury
面癱
􀂉 2. Partial to total sensory hearing loss
失去部份或全部聽力
􀂉 3. Ear canal stenosis
耳道狹窄
􀂉 4. Pinna deformity
耳廓變形
􀂉 5. Intracranial injury causing intracranial infection and bleeding
顱內損傷,導致感染和出血
􀂉 6. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Regular aural toilet and medical treatment
定期耳道清潔和藥物治療
􀂉 2. Antibiotics ear drops
抗菌素滴耳
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Progression of disease with complications
疾病惡化和出現併發症
Information for Consent
Direct Laryngoscopy(DL) / Microlaryngoscopy(ML) 直接喉鏡 / 顯微喉鏡
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Examination of the larynx and adjacent areas
檢查喉及鄰近組織
􀂉 2. Biopsy or excision of suspicious lesions
活組織檢查
􀂉 3. Provision of access for other throat and laryngeal procedure
透過喉鏡進行其它手術
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Lesions in the larynx and related area
喉及相關區域病變
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Improve the voice quality
改善發音
􀂉 2. Relieve airway obstruction
解除氣道阻塞
􀂉 3. Obtain biopsy for histology
活組織檢查
􀂉 4. Excise lesion in selected cases
切除病變
􀂉 5. There is chance of incomplete removal of diseases and recurrence
有可能不能全部清除病灶和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Functional voice disorders
功能性發音病變
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 2. Pain
疼痛
􀂉 3. Infection
感染
􀂉 4. Trauma to oral tissue
口咽組織損傷
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Teeth injury causing loosening, fracture and pain
牙齒脫落、 裂傷、 疼痛
􀂉 2. Temporomandibular joint injury causing pain, trismus and subluxation
顳頜關節損傷,引致疼痛、 半脫臼和 牙關緊閉
􀂉 3. Voice changes
聲音改變
􀂉 4. Upper airway obstruction
上呼吸道阻塞
􀂉 5. Postoperative pulmonary edema
術後肺水腫
􀂉 6. Cervical spine injury
頸椎損傷
􀂉 7. Loss of taste ( temporary or permanent)
失去味覺(暫時或 永久)
􀂉 8. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Expectant treatment
觀察病情進展, 再作打算
􀂉 2. Medical treatment
藥物治療
􀂉 3. Speech therapy
語言治療
􀂉 4. Radiotherapy / Chemotherapy in malignant condition
放射治療或化療 (惡性腫瘤)
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. No histological diagnosis
無病理診斷
􀂉 2. Progression of disease
病情惡化
Information for Consent
Myringotomy +/- Ventilation Tube Insertion 鼓膜切開術+/- 置管
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的健
康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. To make a hole in the eardrum (myringotomy)
耳膜開孔
􀂉 2. Placement of a ventilation tube through the eardrum
置管
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Secretory otitis media
分泌性(滲出性)中耳炎
􀂉 2. Eustachian tube dysfunction
咽鼓管阻塞
􀂉 3. Acute otitis media
急性中耳炎
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. To normalize the middle ear pressure
恢復中耳壓力
􀂉 2. To drain the middle ear
中耳引流
􀂉 3. Hearing improvement
改善聽力
􀂉 4. There is chance of incomplete relief of symptoms and recurrence after extrusion of the grommet
有可能置管排出後症狀不能完全緩解和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Tinnitus
耳鳴
􀂉 2. Dizziness
頭暈
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Recurrence
復發
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 4. Residual ear drum perforation
耳膜穿孔
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Hearing loss
聽力減退
􀂉 2. Vertigo
暈眩
􀂉 3. Facial nerve damage
面神經損傷
􀂉 4. Dislodgement of ventilation tube into middle ear
置管脫入中耳
􀂉 5. Implantation Cholesteatoma
植入性膽脂瘤
􀂉 6. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Medical treatment
藥物治療
􀂉 2. Hearing aid
助聽器
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Persistent hearing loss
永久聽力下降
􀂉 2. Progression of infection with complications
感染惡化引致併發症
Information for Consent
Tympanoplasty 鼓室成型術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的健
康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Repair of perforated eardrum (myringoplasty)
修補耳膜
􀂉 2. Repair of ossicular chain (ossiculoplasty)
重建聽骨
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Perforated eardrum
耳膜穿孔
􀂉 2. Control or prevent ear infection
控制或預防中耳感染
􀂉 3. Hearing loss
弱聽
􀂉 4. There is chance of incomplete relief of symptoms and recurrence
有可能不會完全減輕症狀和有可能復發
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Intact eardrum (85% success rate)
完整鼓膜 (成功率85%)
􀂉 2. Control or prevent ear infection
控制或預防中耳發炎
􀂉 3. Hearing improvement
改善聽力
􀂉 4. There is chance of incomplete relief of symptoms and recurrence
有可能不會完全改善症狀和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Tinnitus
耳鳴
􀂉 2. Dizziness
頭暈
􀂉 3. Sensorineural hearing loss
感音神經性聽力下降
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Allergic reaction to ear packing
對耳道填塞物過敏
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 4. Loss of taste sensation
失去味覺
􀂉 5. Vertigo
暈眩
􀂉 6. Recurrence of ear infection
感染復發
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Hearing impairment, total deafness can occur rarely
聽力減退,偶爾導致全聾
􀂉 2. Facial nerve damage
面神經損傷
􀂉 3. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Water precaution
耳道禁水
􀂉 2. Eardrops or systemic antibiotics
滴耳藥水或 抗生素
􀂉 3. Hearing aid
助聽器
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Recurrent infection and ear discharge with rare but serious complications
嚴重併發症
􀂉 2. Hearing impairment
聽力損害
Information for Consent
Neck Dissection 頸清掃
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Excision of all or part of the neck lymph nodes and adjacent structures
切除全部或部份頸淋巴結和鄰近組織
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Confirmed neck lymph node metastasis
明確的頸淋巴轉移
􀂉 2. Suspected neck lymph node metastasis
可疑的頸淋巴轉移
􀂉 3. As a neck staging procedure
頸淋巴轉移評估
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Complete removal of the neck metastasis
徹底清除頸淋巴轉移病灶
􀂉 2. Staging of neck metastasis for further treatment planning
評估頸淋巴擴散情況,對疾病作進一步治療計劃
􀂉 3. There is chance of incomplete removal of disease and recurrence
有可能不能全部清除病灶和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Extensive local disease involving vital structures
病灶累及重要結構
􀂉 2. Distant metastasis
遠處轉移
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Shoulder pain and weakness
肩痛和抬肩乏力
􀂉 4. Chyle leakage
乳糜漏
􀂉 5. Numbness of neck
頸麻痺
􀂉 6. Lymphedema
淋巴腫
􀂉 7. Hypertrophic scar or keloid formation
疤痕增生或疤痕瘤
􀂉 8. Cosmetic deformity
局部畸形
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Skin necrosis
皮膚壞死
􀂉 2. Nerve injury
神經損傷
􀂉 a. Facial nerve (VII) injury causing facial and mouth asymmetry
面神經損傷,引致面癱和 口角歪斜
􀂉 b. Vagus nerve (X) injury causing hoarseness of voice
迷走神經損傷,引致聲音嘶啞
􀂉 c. Accessory nerve (XI) injury causing shoulder muscle weakness, pain and stiffness
副神經損傷,引致抬肩無力、疼痛
􀂉 d. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) injury causing impairment of tongue movement and swallowing problem
舌下神經損傷,引致舌活動困難、 語言和吞嚥問題
􀂉 e. Brachial nerve injury causing upper limb paralysis
臂叢神經損傷,引致上肢麻痺和癱瘓
􀂉 f. Phrenic nerve injury causing breathing difficulty
膈神經損傷,引致呼吸困難
􀂉 g. Sympathetic nerve injury causing dropping of eyelid, dryness of face
交感神經損傷,引致眼皮下垂、 面部乾燥
􀂉 3. Increased intracranial pressure causing headache, vomiting, neurological deficit
顱內壓增高,引致頭痛、惡心、 嘔吐、 神經癱瘓
􀂉 4. Pneumothorax causing breathing difficulty
氣胸引致呼吸困難
􀂉 5. Cerebrovascular accident
腦血管意外
􀂉 6. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Radiotherapy
放射治療
􀂉 2. Chemotherapy
化療
􀂉 3. Observation
觀察
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Progression of disease
病情惡化
Information for Consent
Parotidectomy 腮腺切除術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. To remove part of or whole parotid gland
部份或全腮腺切除
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Parotid gland tumour (benign / malignant)
良性或惡性腮腺腫瘤
􀂉 2. Recurrent parotid infection
復發性腮腺炎
􀂉 3. Provide surgical access for other head and neck procedures
頭頸手術進路
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Removal of parotid gland tumor
切除腮腺腫瘤
􀂉 2. Prevent further parotid infection
預防腮腺感染
􀂉 3. There is chance of incomplete removal of disease and recurrence
有可能不能全部清除病灶和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Symptoms unrelated to parotid gland
非腮腺引致的病症
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding and hematoma
出血、 血腫
􀂉 2. Wound infection
傷口感染
􀂉 3. Numbness around earlobe
耳廓麻痺
􀂉 4. Frey’s Syndrome causing sweating during eating
Frey 氏綜合症,引致進食流汗
􀂉 5. Transient facial weakness
暫時面癱
􀂉 6. Hypertrophic scar or keloid formation
疤痕增生或疤痕瘤
􀂉 7. Cosmetic deformity
局部畸形
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Permanent facial weakness
永久面癱
􀂉 2. Recurrence
復發
􀂉 3. Salivary fistula
唾液腺漏
􀂉 4. Skin necrosis
皮膚壞死
􀂉 5. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Follow up with observation for benign lesion
觀察良性病變
􀂉 2. Radiotherapy for malignant lesion
放射治療惡性腫瘤
􀂉 3. Antibiotic to treat infection
抗生素醫治感染
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Tumour progression
腫瘤惡化
􀂉 2. Recurrent infection
感染復發
Information for Consent
Septoplasty / Submucosal Resection of Septum (SMR) 鼻中隔成型術/粘膜下隔切除術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的健
康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. To straighten the deviated nasal septum
矯正偏曲的鼻中隔
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Nasal obstruction attributed by a deviated nasal septum
鼻中隔偏曲引起的鼻塞
􀂉 2. Obstruction of sinus opening leading to sinusitis
鼻竇竇口引流阻塞導致的鼻竇炎
􀂉 3. Epistaxis
鼻出血
􀂉 4. Septal spur headache
鼻中隔引致的頭痛
􀂉 5. Provide exposure for other nasal surgery
其它鼻手術進路
􀂉 6. Deviated nose attributed by deviated nasal septum
鼻中隔偏曲,引致的歪鼻畸形
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Reduce nasal obstruction
減輕鼻塞
􀂉 2. Reduce obstruction of sinus opening leading to sinusitis
減輕竇口阻塞
􀂉 3. Reduce epistaxis
減少鼻出血
􀂉 4. Reduce septal spur headache
緩解鼻中隔導致的頭痛
􀂉 5. Improve nasal deformity attributed by deviated nasal septum
改善歪鼻畸形
􀂉 6. There is chance of incomplete relief of deviation and recurrence
有可能不能全部清除病灶和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Nasal obstruction not chiefly caused by deviated nasal septum
非鼻中隔偏曲導致的鼻塞
􀂉 2. Nasal symptoms due to allergic rhinitis including running nose, itchiness, sneezing, postnasal drip
過敏性鼻炎導致的症狀:鼻癢、 噴嚏、 後鼻漏
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 2. Persistent nasal obstruction
鼻塞
􀂉 3. Infection
感染
􀂉 4. Nasal adhesion
鼻腔黏連
􀂉 5. Septal haematoma
鼻中隔血腫
􀂉 6. Septal perforation
鼻中隔穿孔
􀂃 Uncommon but serious complications (<1% risk) 嚴重但不常見併發症
􀂉 1. Saddle nose deformity / columellar retraction
鼻樑塌陷
􀂉 2. Loss of smell sensation
失去嗅覺
􀂉 3. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea
腦髓液鼻漏
􀂉 4. Toxic shock syndrome
中毒性休克
􀂉 5. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Medical treatment
藥物治療
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Persistent nasal obstruction
持續鼻塞
􀂉 2. Sinusitis and its complications
鼻竇炎及併發症
􀂉 3. Recurrent epistaxis
復發性鼻出血
􀂉 4. Persistent headache
持續頭痛
􀂉 5. Persistent nasal deformity
持續鼻畸形
Information for Consent
Stapedectomy 鐙骨切除術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Removal of the fixed stapes bone and replacement with an artificial prosthesis
切除固定鐙骨 及 人工鐙骨植入
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Otosclerosis with conductive hearing loss
耳硬化症
􀂉 2. Other causes of stapes fixation with conductive hearing loss
其它病變引致鐙骨固定的傳導性耳聾
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Hearing improvement
改善聽力
􀂉 2. There is chance of residual hearing loss and recurrence after initial improvement
有可能不能全部清除病灶和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Tinnitus
耳鳴
􀂉 2. Dizziness
頭暈
􀂉 3. Sensorineural hearing loss
感音神經性耳聾
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Allergic reaction to ear packing
對耳道填塞物過敏
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 4. Taste loss or disturbance
味覺失去或紊亂
􀂉 5. Tinnitus
耳鳴
􀂉 6. Vertigo
暈眩
􀂉 7. Hearing impairment
聽力損害
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Total deafness
全聾
􀂉 2. Eardrum perforation
耳膜穿孔
􀂉 3. Facial nerve damage causing facial paralysis
面神經損傷,引致面癱
􀂉 4. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Observation
觀察病情進展, 再作打算
􀂉 2. Hearing aid
助聽器
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Progressive hearing loss
聽力繼續下降
Information for Consent
Tonsillectomy 扁桃體切除術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Excision of the tonsils
切除扁桃體
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Recurrent/Chronic tonsillitis
復發性或慢性扁桃體炎
􀂉 2. Peritonsillar abscess
扁桃體周圍膿腫
􀂉 3. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) / Snoring
阻塞性睡眠窒息綜合症或鼻鼾症
􀂉 4. Biopsy for histological diagnosis
活組織檢查
􀂉 5. Tonsillar malignancy
扁桃體惡性腫瘤
􀂉 6. Provide exposure for other head and neck surgery
手術進路
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Reduce throat infections
減少咽喉感染
􀂉 2. Reduce sleep apnea / snoring
減輕睡眠窒息 或 打鼻鼾
􀂉 3. Provide histological diagnosis
病理診斷
􀂉 4. There is chance of incomplete removal of disease and recurrence after initial improvement
有可能症狀不能全部清除和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Throat problem not attributed by the tonsils
非扁桃體引致的咽喉問題
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 2. Pain
疼痛
􀂉 3. Infection
感染
􀂉 4. Local trauma to oral tissues
口腔局部損傷
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Teeth injury
牙齒損傷
􀂉 2. Jaw injury
下頷損傷
􀂉 3. Voice changes
聲音改變
􀂉 4. Upper airway obstruction
上氣道阻塞
􀂉 5. Postoperative pulmonary edema
術後肺水腫
􀂉 6. Cervical spine injury
頸椎損傷
􀂉 7. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Antibiotic to treat infection
抗生素治療感染
􀂉 2. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device for OSAS
持續正壓呼吸機治療阻塞性睡眠窒息綜合症
􀂉 3. Radiotherapy / Chemotherapy for malignancy
放射治療或化療治療惡性腫瘤
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Recurrent tonsillitis or peritonsillar abscess and its complications
扁桃體炎或扁桃體周圍膿腫復發和出現併發症
􀂉 2. Complications of untreated OSAS
阻塞性睡眠窒息綜合症的併發症
􀂉 3. No histological diagnosis for suspected tonsillar tumour
不能準確診斷腫瘤
Information for Consent
Total Laryngectomy 全喉切除術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. To excise the whole larynx and create a new permanent tracheotomy with loss of natural voice
全喉切除, 氣管永久造口,並 失去正常發聲功能
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Malignant tumor involving the larynx
喉惡性腫瘤
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Complete removal of malignant tumor involving the larynx
切除腫瘤
􀂉 2. There is chance of incomplete removal of disease and recurrence
有可能不能全部清除腫瘤和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Tumor extends beyond the confine of the larynx
腫瘤超出喉範圍
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Pharyngocutaneous fistula
咽瘘(漏)
􀂉 4. Tracheostome stenosis causing breathing difficulty and requirement of stent or revision surgery
氣管造口狹窄,引致呼吸困難,而需要氣管套管或手術修正
􀂉 5. Loss of power to lift up heavy weight
失去舉重力
􀂉 6. Pharyngeal stenosis causing dysphagia
咽狹窄,引致吞嚥困難
􀂉 7. Thyroid insufficiency causing lethargy, cold intolerance, poor appetite, weight gain, hypotension,
heart failure, arrhythmia requiring life long replacement medication
甲狀腺功能減退,引致需要長期替代藥物治療
􀂉 8. Parathyroid insufficiency causing muscle cramp requiring life long replacement medication
甲狀旁腺功能減退,引致肌肉痙攣,需要長期替代藥物治療
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Pneumothorax
氣胸
􀂉 2. Skin necrosis
皮膚壞死
􀂉 3. Nerve injury
神經損傷
􀂉 a. Hypoglossal nerve (XII) injury causing impairment of tongue movement and swallowing problem
舌下神經損傷,引致舌活動困難、 語言和吞嚥問題
􀂉 b. Phrenic nerve injury causing breathing difficulty
膈神經損傷,引致呼吸困難
􀂉 c. Sympathetic nerve injury causing dropping of eyelid, dryness of face
交感神經損傷,引致眼皮下垂、 面部乾燥
􀂉 4. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Radiotherapy
放射治療
􀂉 2. Chemotherapy
化療
􀂉 3. Symptomatic palliative treatment
舒緩治療
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Progression of tumor and death
腫瘤惡化及死亡
Information for Consent
Tracheostomy 氣管切開術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Tracheostomy is an operation in which an opening is made through the neck skin into the trachea
切開頸部皮膚氣管造口
􀂉 2. A tube is inserted into the opening, through which breathing can continue
氣管套插入, 維持呼吸
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Upper airway obstruction
上呼吸道阻塞
􀂉 2. Prolonged endotracheal intubation
長時間的氣管插管
􀂉 3. Aspiration pneumonia
吸入性肺炎
􀂉 4. Airway protection
保護氣道
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Relief of upper airway obstruction and protection of airway
解除上呼吸道阻塞
􀂉 2. A tube is kept in the neck for breathing until normal airway is restored
氣管套管留置,直到正常氣道恢復通暢
􀂉 3. There is chance of failure to relieve problems and recurrence
有可能不能解決問題和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Lower airway obstruction
下氣道阻塞
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
.
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 2. Infection
感染
􀂉 3. Swallowing problem
吞嚥困難
􀂉 4. Speech problem
語言問題
􀂉 5. Tracheostomy tube blockage and dislodgement causing asphyxia
套管阻塞或移位, 引致呼吸困難
􀂉 6. Surgical emphysema
皮下氣腫
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Apnea
呼吸暫停
􀂉 2. Tracheal stenosis
氣管狹窄
􀂉 3. Injury to other neck structures
其它頸部損傷
􀂉 4. Pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax
氣胸
􀂉 5. Tracheocutaneous fistula
皮氣管漏
􀂉 6. Erosion into large vessels causing fatal bleeding
大血管損傷,導致致命性出血
􀂉 7. Erosion into esophagus causing aspiration
損傷食道
􀂉 8. Failed weaning of tracheostomy
拔管困難 (不能拔管)
􀂉 9. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Endotracheal intubation
氣管插管
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Airway obstruction and death
氣管阻塞及死亡
􀂉 2. Prolonged intubation causing injury to trachea with resultant stenosis
長期插管損傷,引致氣管狹窄
􀂉 3. Aspiration and recurrent pneumonia
吸入性肺炎
Information for Consent
Inferior Turbinate Reduction 下鼻甲減容術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Transnasal resection of inferior turbinates
切除下鼻甲
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Hypertrophic inferior turbinates causing nasal obstruction
下鼻甲肥大引致的鼻塞
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Reduce nasal obstruction
緩解鼻塞
􀂉 2. There is chance of incomplete relief of nasal obstruction and recurrence
有可能不會完全改善鼻塞和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Nasal obstruction not chiefly caused by hypertrophic inferior turbinates
非下鼻甲肥厚引致的鼻塞
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
.
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 2. Persistent nasal obstruction
持續鼻塞
􀂉 3. Infection
感染
􀂉 4. Intranasal adhesion
鼻腔粘連
􀂉 5. Crusting (transient)
暫時痂皮
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Atrophic rhinitis
萎縮性鼻炎
􀂉 2. Injury to Eustachian tube
咽鼓管損傷
􀂉 3. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Medical treatment
藥物治療
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Persistent nasal obstruction
持續鼻塞
Information for Consent
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) / Laser-assisted Uvuloplasty (LAUP)
垂腭咽成型術 / 激光輔助腭咽成型術
version: 2005-07
(The fact sheet contains important information about the surgery / procedure. You should read it well before this
surgery / procedure. However, this information does not take the place of discussions with your healthcare
professional and / or clinicians regarding your health condition. Since it has not included all the information about
such surgery / procedure, please consult your doctor or health care professional if you have any questions.
本單張載有本手術的重要資料,故應於接受手術前細閱。不過,細閱本單張全部內容並不表示你毋須與醫生就你的
健康狀況有關療程進行商討。本單張並未盡列此手術所有資料,如你對此手術有任何疑問,應聯絡醫生。)
􀂃 Nature of procedures 手術性質
􀂉 1. Reduction/Resection of soft palate and uvula; plus resection of tonsils (UPPP)
軟腭 及 扁桃體切除
􀂉 2. Laser surgery on soft palate and uvula (LAUP)
激光手術輔助腭咽成型
􀂃 Indications 適合病症
􀂉 1. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)
阻塞性睡眠窒息綜合症
􀂉 2. Snoring
鼻鼾症
􀂃 Intended benefits and expected outcome 預期結果
􀂉 1. Reduce sleep apnea
緩解睡眠窒息
􀂉 2. Reduce snoring
緩解打鼻鼾
􀂉 3. There is chance of incomplete relief of symptoms or recurrence after initial improvement
有可能不會完全緩解病灶和有可能復發
􀂃 Conditions that would not be benefited by the procedure 手術不能解決的問題
􀂉 1. Airway obstruction at levels other than oropharynx
非口咽狹窄引致的氣道阻塞
􀂃 Risk of side effects and complications 副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 1. There are always certain side effects and risks of complications of the procedure
手術有一些副作用和併發症風險
􀂉 2. Medical staff will take every preventive measures to reduce their likelihood
醫務人員將盡力減少副作用和併發症風險
.
􀂃 Common side effects and complications 常見副作用和併發症 (≧1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Pain
疼痛
􀂉 2. Bleeding
出血
􀂉 3. Throat discomfort and post-nasal dripping sensation
喉不適和後鼻漏
􀂉 4. Voice change
聲音改變
􀂉 5. Infection
感染
􀂉 6. Risk of laser
激光的危險
􀂃 Uncommon but serious side effects and complications 不常見但嚴重副作用和併發症(<1% risk/風險)
􀂉 1. Velopharyngeal insufficiencies causing regurgitation of food and water, and voice change
腭咽閉合不良,引致進食和喝水時液體返嗆、 發音改變
􀂉 2. Pharyngeal stenosis causing breathing difficulty, snoring, sleep apnea and voice change
咽狹引致呼吸困難、 打鼻鼾、 睡眠窒息和發音改變
􀂉 3. Loss of taste (temporary or permanent)
失去味覺 (暫時或 永久)
􀂉 4. Airway obstruction and respiratory distress
氣道阻塞和呼吸困難
􀂉 5. Death due to serious surgical and anaesthetic complications
由於手術或麻醉的嚴重併發症引致死亡
􀂃 Information of available alternative treatments 其它治療方法
􀂉 1. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device
持續正壓呼吸
􀂉 2. Oral retaining device / dental appliances
口腔或 齒科裝置
􀂉 3. Other palatal procedure
其它腭手術
􀂃 Consequences of no treatment 不治療的後果
􀂉 1. Persistent or progression of snoring
鼻鼾聲持續存在
􀂉 2. Risk of complications of obstructive sleep apnea
阻塞性睡眠窒息綜合症的併發症

骨髓移植治愈艾滋

December 17, 2010 at 10:25 am | Posted in hiv | Leave a comment

德国柏林沙里泰医院的研究人员托马斯·施奈德介绍说,美国一名40多岁的白血病患者2007年打算接受骨髓移植。他同时是一名艾滋病病毒携带者。这名患者的主治医生许特尔当时冒出一个大胆的想法:“为什么不同时治愈这两种疾病呢?”

其实,尽管艾滋病对一些人而言意味着噩梦,但对很少一部分欧洲人却无法构成威胁。这些人天生携带一种天然的变异基因,可以抵御艾滋病。许特尔最终找到了与这名患者成功配型并携带抗艾变异基因的捐献者,成功实施手术。

在接受该骨髓治疗后,这名美国人停止服用抗艾滋药物。3年半后,这名美国病人已不再有白血病和艾滋病病毒感染的迹象。“这一结果非常明确地显示这名患者的艾滋病得到治愈。”施奈德研究团队在报告中宣传。

25岁艾滋患者可活八十岁

这一医学奇迹燃起不少艾滋病病毒携带者康复的希望。对于这个治疗,英国伯明翰艾滋中心的迈克·桑阿格给予很高的评价,“这是具有重要意义的科学 研究”。桑阿格表示,在理论上已经证实这种变异基因能够抵抗艾滋病病毒,并且曾在白鼠体内试验过,但是这是首次科学家在人体上实验,证明这个基因能治疗艾 滋病。

桑阿格表示这种治疗方法可以为艾滋病患者延长寿命,“如果一名病人25岁患有艾滋病,那么他将可能会活到八十,甚至九十岁。这为艾滋病的治疗提供了一条新的道路。”

科学家研制人工抗艾突变基因

一些生物学和医学学者说,这一奇迹几乎不可复制。一方面,骨髓移植伴有相当大的风险。另外,找寻具有抗艾基因的配型者无异于海底捞针。

美国艾滋病病毒医学协会前会长迈克尔·扎格认为,干细胞或骨髓移植必须要利用强力药物和放射物摧毁人体原有的免疫系统,然后输入捐献者的骨髓, 以重造一个新的免疫系统,这种疗法及其引发的并发症会提高死亡率。另外,治疗费用太高,大概需要几千万美元。更难的是,找到一个合适的、具有抗艾基因的骨 髓很困难,这一基因突变只存在于生活在北欧和西欧的高加索人中,且只占到其总人口的1%。

美国南加州大学生物学教授坎农提出一个大胆设想:“既然难以移植抗艾变异基因,那是否能实现人造呢?”坎农及其研究团队正在试验鼠上进行此项试验,并取得了一定进展。

引入廉價而質優的亞洲醫生

December 6, 2010 at 11:46 pm | Posted in 醫療融資, health care | Leave a comment
稿

對香港《新報》評論之回應

香港醫學會十分關注《新報》於十二月三日所刊“新論”中對於我們的指責。此評論的最後一句提及,“假如港府可以打破香港醫學會的壟斷,引入廉價而質優的亞洲醫生(當然只限於公立醫院,私家醫院則不准),這才是最有效的解決香港醫療問題的政策。”我們認為,這一言論存在諸多事實錯誤。基於公眾利益的考慮,我們有必要進行澄清。

 

首先,香港醫學會是一個非政府組織,既無力管轄頒發執業牌照之事宜,也無權決定哪一國籍的醫生可以在香港執業。只有香港醫務委員會是獲得授權,可以依照《醫生註冊條例》頒發醫生執照的官方組織,且醫委會中百分之五十的成員是由任命產生。

 

香港一向給予行醫者最大程度的執業自由。香港早有既定機制容許外國畢業的醫生參加由香港醫務委員會定時舉辨的醫生執照試。經考試評核合格者可在本港公立醫院進行有薪實習,實習結束後若獲得公立醫院或任何私營機構的聘任,通常可獲准留港註冊執業。本港註册醫生若擁有外國核準的專科資格,可向香港醫學專科學院申請評定該資歷,達標者亦可向香港醫務委員會之教育及評審小組申請註冊成為專科醫生。

 

對於公立醫院稀缺的專科醫生,通常可獲一個有限度註冊,以便留港執業,這也包括現在急需的麻醉師。

 

如今,超過一千名畢業於香港以外地區的醫生已通過執照試,並在香港執業。香港醫學會有三名會董亦是於中國大陸畢業,而其中兩人現為公立醫院的高級醫生。

 

在試圖利用亞洲其他國家的醫療人手時,應考慮這一手段是否有悖道德?那些欠發達的亞洲國家投入數以百萬計的資金培養醫生,他們自己的國民不也應該擁有足夠的醫療人力資源嗎?

 

公立醫院若確實缺乏人手,這一問題便值得深入研究。為什麼有醫生在公立醫院完成培訓後,甚至還未完成時,就選擇離開?為什麼醫院管理局數年前向受訓醫生提供經濟獎勵,企圖誘使他們遠離公營部門?(我們的一個會董在辭職時獲發一百多萬元港幣)。在決定是否增加醫學生數量之前,我們是否應該先進行一次嚴格的人力資源調查?如果沒有足夠的職位去訓練醫生,憑什麼去增加其數量?

 

過去媒體所進行的民意調查顯示,民眾希望確保高質素的醫療人手。在缺乏嚴格的醫療知識評估機制下,允許外國畢業生來港行醫,不會對市民有任何益處,實際上,這將是危險的。

 

我們希望通過這一聲明使問題得到澄清。今後,在涉及香港醫學會的相關事務時,如若媒體在對事實不熟悉或沒有把握時能先與我們聯絡,我們將不勝感激。

 

李福基醫生

義務秘書

香港醫學會

二零一零年十二月六日

 

病人坐着移除頸靜脈導管

November 27, 2010 at 12:03 am | Posted in medicine | Leave a comment
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另外一宗事故,為一名70歲要洗腎的病人,接受移除頸靜脈導管時,按一名初級醫生吩咐,坐着讓對方移除頸靜脈導管,但病人在移除導管後不久,覺得頭暈及沒有感覺,電腦掃描顯示病人出現頸動脈栓塞。病人接受高壓氧氣治療後,已康復出院。

醫管局指出,負責的初級醫生經驗不足,沒有意識到有關風險,為病人移除頸靜脈導管,應讓病人保持仰臥,或頭部向下的姿勢。報告建議要提高醫護人員對移除導管的風險警覺,以及加強對初級醫護人員的監督。

The Prostate Cancer Biopsy Procedure

October 14, 2010 at 4:42 am | Posted in Prostate | Leave a comment

The prostate biopsy is the taking of tissue samples from the prostate gland and examining them underneath a microscope for cell differentiation. Cancerous cells are shaped and arranged differently than healthy cells. The more differentiated cancerous cells are from healthy cells, the more aggressive the cancer. If the biopsy reveals no cancerous cells, either you do not have prostate cancer, or the prostate biopsy missed the tumor. If the doctor believes the biopsy missed a tumor based on other factors such as your family history, a particular irregularity in the digital rectal exam, or a rising PSA density, you will receive a follow-up biopsy in six months. Seventy-five percent of men have negative primary prostate biopsies. Before the Prostate Biopsy Before undergoing the biopsy, a patient may take antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection after the prostate biopsy. The patient also should stop anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that may increase the risk of bleeding after the biopsy. Finally, the doctor may also order an enema before the prostate biopsy to remove feces and gas that may complicate the transrectal biopsy. Types of Prostate Biopsies There are three types of prostate biopsies: the transrectal, the transurethral, and the transperineal. The transrectal prostate biopsy is guided by the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) through the anus and into the rectum. The transurethral biopsy is performed with a lighted cystoscope up through the urethra so the doctor can look directly at the prostate gland. The transperineal biopsy collects the tissue through a small incision in the perineum. The transrectal and transperineal prostate biopsies both use spring-loaded needles to collect their samples as quickly, efficiently, and painlessly as possible. The biopsy gun can collect between 6 and 13 samples, depending on how many a doctor believed is necessary to diagnose you correctly. Transperineal Prostate Biopsy Patients opting to undergo the transperineal biopsy may also be put under general anesthesia if they wish to be unconscious during the biopsy. Men who opt to have the transperineal biopsy performed may experience some tenderness as well as blood in the semen for one to two months afterwards. Transrectal Prostate Biopsy In the transrectal biopsy, transrectal ultrasound guides the doctor and the biopsy gun to the proper place. Patients who opt for this prostate biopsy may experience a small amount of bleeding from the rectum as well as blood and urine in the semen afterwards. Transurethral Prostate Biopsy The transurethral biopsy inserts the cystoscope into the urethra. Local anesthesia is given to numb the area. The doctor looks directly at the prostate through the cytoscope and then inserts a cutting loop to extract tissue. The cutting loop works by turning and extracting a small amount of tissue with each turn. Side Effects of Prostate Biopsy Only minimal pain is associated with both procedures, though, doctors are more commonly using local anesthesia to numb the tested area. After having the prostate biopsy, men may experience blood in their urine and their semen for a few weeks or up to two months afterwards. Some soreness or minimal bleeding (after the transperineal biopsy) may also be experienced for a few days. Some doctors recommend having someone drive the patient home to avoid unpleasantness or soreness. Also, patients who opt for local anesthesia may be groggy for a short time after the prostate biopsy. Patients may return to normal activities as soon as they feel able. In all three procedures, the pathologist needs multiple samples from different areas of the prostate to make an accurate diagnosis. Remember, if a tumor is small enough, it can be missed during the prostate biopsy. A doctor will examine patient’s circumstances and determine whether he needs a follow-up biopsy. If the pathologist does find prostate cancer, the next step is to assign a Gleason score.

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